Sports Medicine

Sports medicine focuses on prevention and treatment of injuries associated with athletic activities. We specialize in sports injuries from our experience with the Pittsburgh Steelers, Pittsburgh Penguins, Oklahoma City Thunder, and numerous collegiate and high school teams.

Learn more about Sports Medicine »

Concussion Care

Concussions, previously known as mild traumatic brain injuries, are being increasingly recognized in sports. We have concussion care specialists with training under the experts who wrote the NFL guidelines in 2009.

Learn more about Concussion Care »

Customized Joint Replacement

Customized joint replacement is a surgical procedure in which certain parts of an arthritic or damaged joint are removed and replaced with a customized artificial joint, which is designed to move just like a healthy joint.

Learn more about Customized
Joint Replacement »

Understanding Foot and Ankle Arthritis

What Is Arthritis and Who Develops It?

Simply put, arthritis is inflammation of a joint. But there’s nothing simple about the pain or loss of mobility that can be associated with it. In fact, arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Although it can affect anyone, arthritis is mainly found in adults.

Osteoarthritis
The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) typically affects older people. The cartilage that normally cushions and protects the bones of the joint breaks down over time. Eventually, bone rubs against bone, opening the door to inflammation and other mechanical problems like bone spurs.

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease process that may affect the entire body. The body’s immune response attacks the soft tissue in the joints causing inflammation and pain. Over time, the inflammation leads to compromises in the joint’s cartilage and bone.

Arthritis Caused by Injury
When cartilage in the joints is damaged by a trauma like a fracture or dislocation, arthritis may develop. Even properly treated injured joints are much more likely to develop arthritis than joints that have not been injured.

What Are the Symptoms of Arthritis?

Depending on which of the joints is affected, symptoms of arthritis vary. Typically, symptoms include pain, tenderness, swelling and difficulty moving the joint. Arthritis in the foot or ankle may make walking difficult and painful, reducing your activity level.

In order to diagnose you properly, your doctor will consider your symptoms, examine your feet, and take X-rays, a CT scan or MRI to get a clear view of the alignment of your toes and the condition of the joints in your feet.